COMPULSORY COURSES (taught in Czech/English)

Code: different for each studio
A particular program is arranged for each semester. Students from all years either share the same theme or work on different assignments. Group and/or individual consulations and assessments are held usually twice a week. International students are integrated among local ones, the instruction is held in Czech and English, parallelly or separately. International students can even pursue their own project if they wish. More information about UMPRUM studios´profile is to be found at under the individual departments/studios.
13 ECTS/semester = 220 hours

KLAUSURA – Final semestral project
different for each studio
The klauzura period follows the 12-week lecture period. First, the students are announced a common theme for their final semestral projects and work independently on them for three weeks (January/February resp. May/June) under regular guidance by teachers. An the end of the klauzura period students present their works to an academic jury which includes the studio teachers from the corresponding departments and independent experts. The presentations are open to the public although usually only UMPRUM students and staff attend them. Finally, the projects are evaluated by the jury and publicly exhibited in the studios for a week.
7 ECTS/semester = 180 hours

Study programmes Architecture; Design; Graphics and Visual Communication

The studio practice is continually supervised by the studio head teacher who assigns topics for individual projects, their form (individual or team project) and the time schedule. Depending on the nature of the individual tasks, external experts are also involved by giving specialized lectures, workshops and consultations. Short field trips to the localities related to the theme of the assignment may be included.

During the studio classes, the student applies the gained knowledge and uses the acquired practical skills, verifies the capability of constructive criticism and self-reflection, and learns to perform different roles in a working team. Depending on the field, the student is also required to take into account the relevant ethical and professional standards; respond to demand of the society, requirements of the client, as well as the situation on the market; and present the output of his/her artistic activities to both expert and lay public.


Study programme Fine Arts

The studio practice is continually supervised by the studio head teacher. Emphasis is placed on the development of the students´creative potential, especially through the mutual dialogue between teachers and students. A fundamental aspect of the course is to encourage students to search for their own artistic topics, grasp them and carry out their work in a creative way, as well as to develop students´critical thinking and their social responsibility awareness. During the studio classes, students apply their knowledge gained from their studies of specialized theory and art courses, use the acquired practical skills, verify their capability of constructive criticism and self-reflection, and learn to work in team.

The methods of teaching at the Department of Fine Arts is based on an individual approach to the needs and development of individual students in order to educate graduates who become independent artistic personalities. Consultations take place in groups or individually, the combination of both forms allows an application of different methods of teaching and feedback. Students´ individual efforts to study independently and to actively participate in artistic activities outside the university is also supported.

Specific themes and issues that teachers and students consider topical and essential, or are considered to be of any use in further students´ creative development are discussed. The semester programme is often supplemented by accompanying events - seminars, workshops and lectures given by external guests, as well as joint reading of theoretical texts, visits to and reflections on exhibitions and other cultural events, implementation of group studio projects, etc.

Studio profiles

Department of Architecture

Studio of Architecture I accentuates the respect of the studio to individualism, but also harmony of the individual with the whole group. Besides innovative development of each student, it cultivates the ability of the whole group to cooperate on the joint task, especially as regards themes that pass from the entirety to the detail.  The students deal with the actual construction only after arriving at the selected location, in succession to a jointly prepared urbanistic concept. The credo of AI is the search for the actual sense of a design and its confrontation with the reality: No building of castles in the air – it is possible to design visionary projects, but they have to be rooted in the real situation.

Studio of Architecture II focuses on the whole spectrum of architectural skills with overlaps into related disciplines, examining the architecture in the widest possible circumstances. Its goal is substantiated contemporary or futuristic architecture with a pragmatic relationship to the reality. The education in Studio AII focuses on analysing and processing real themes or visions (from work for the real customers to free topics) and subsequent training of architectural skills. Its goal is substantiated contemporary or futuristic architecture with a pragmatic relationship to the reality.

Studio Architecture III focuses on advanced high-performance architecture adjusted to the social and technological situation of the current culture through research and innovation in intelligent buildings and dynamic environments. The studio deals with the latest computer and CNC technology for designing and implementation of architecture, design and production of architectonic prototypes and models. As one of the first studios in the Czech academic milieu, it integrates methods of computational designing, augmented and virtual reality and new geometries into the process of architectural design. The methodology has a character of basic research although the outcomes of its activity are directed towards practical application or even implementation in the final phase.

Studio of Architecture AIV deals with tasks that involve critical observation and commenting on the events around us. The architecture is perceived mostly as a care of the place where the people live. While doing so, it examines the limits of architecture, simplicity of the thinking, open criticism and constructive reflection. The architect's work is an interdisciplinary team creation mutually inspiring and affecting itself through cooperation. The studio initiates and performs such cooperation with the other school studios.


Department of Design

Studio of Industrial Design is within the specialization mainly focused on industrially manufactured everyday items; both mechanical and electronic tools and devices; means of transport; products utilizing software applications, network connection, or a certain level of machine learning and autonomous control. Therefore, aside from the aesthetic, material, design, or ergonomic aspects of individual products, the assignments of studio classes will overlap into the fields of digital infrastructures and systems, software, or user interface.

Studio of Furniture and Interior Design is within the specialization mainly focused on the field of interior design of private and public buildings, products intended to furnish these (in particular, furniture, lights, bathroom and kitchen equipment, and other interior accessories). The activity content of the studio partially overlaps with exhibition design and with architecture. Aside from the aesthetic, material, design, or ergonomic aspects of individual products or spatial solutions, as part of their work on assignments, the students also deal with the social or psychological levels of environment, which they form by their designs, as well as the wider architectural context of individual implementations.

Studio of Product Design is within the specialization mainly focused on the realm of production of everyday items, from interior furnishings, through leisure and sport products, to street furniture and other small-size exterior products. The activity content of the studio partially overlaps with exhibition design and with small-scale architecture. Aside from the aesthetic, material, design, or ergonomic aspects of individual products, the students deal with the whole complex of their production, presentation, use, disposal, as well as recycling, as part of their work on individual assignments. They work with symbolic, psychological, and social importance of the products in connection with the history of art and visual culture.


Department of Applied Arts

Studio of Glass is within the specialization focused on work with glass in a wide variety of technological and conceptual approaches. Studio classes place emphasis on experimenting and searching and surpassing the limits of the material, and opens the way to a wide variety of outputs with overlaps into both product design and individual conceptual or critical creation, whether it is a solitary authorial, or mass produced design, a small-scale interior sculpture, lights, or installations into exhibition or public space. An important aspect is connection of craft and strong local tradition associated with production and processing of glass material, and innovative approaches to technologies that sometimes surpass the limits of the material itself.

Studio of Ceramics and Porcelain is within the specialization mainly focused on development of practical and theoretical skills in the field of ceramics and porcelain but in a wide spectrum of approaches, technologies, and products. Emphasis is placed on the ability to think within craft and art contexts to utilize the potential of ceramic materials in all possible historic and technological contexts. The studies turn to examination of the process from the liquidity of ceramic material to the transformation into compact impermeable matter, and open room for experiment that sometimes surpasses the limits of the material towards territory of fine and conceptual creation.

Studio K.O.V. is within the specialization focused on a wide spectrum of spatial creation using interdisciplinary approach to material, concept, and form, in connection to design, architecture, and fine art. Emphasis is placed on refinement of intellectual capabilities and artistic feeling through experimenting with different materials with special emphasis on metal. Work with different scales, proportions, and contexts guides students to complex contemplation of creation, and to typological variability of products and objects. The systematic conceptual and technological preparation leads the student to master a wide spectrum of applications, from jewellery, applied art items, details usable in interiors or architecture to fine artwork.

Studio of Textile Design is within the specialization mainly focused on production of textile materials and their application on specific products and in specific environments. It is concerned with both industrial production and authorial creation, while lesson time is dedicated to traditional clothing and interior textile, as well as to innovative or experimental materials and technologies. The content of studies in the studio sometimes overlaps with fine art creation or spatial use of textile or other experimental materials. Apart from craft, technological, and aesthetic aspects of textile production and new materials, the classes in the studio are focused on complex environmental and social contexts of textile creation.

Studio of Fashion Design is within the specialization focused on the theory and practice of fashion industry as widely as possibly, starting from design, materials science, tailoring, and clothing modelling, to study of new materials. Emphasis is placed on learning the traditional craft techniques, as well as innovative and experimental approaches to materials, form and function of clothing. During the studies, the students are familiarised with a wide spectrum of work, from designing of products for ready-made mass production, through individual custom production of authorial collections based on experimenting with the concept and form. It is crucial for the students to learn the principles of creation in the field including the internal and external principles of the workings of fashion industry on its different levels concerning international context.

Studio of Fashion and Footwear Design is within the specialization mainly focused on the perfect craftsmanship of clothes, footwear, and clothing and haberdashery accessories. Emphasis is placed on both the knowledge of current material and processing technologies, as well as distinctive and conceptual approach to creation of clothing and clothing collections. Students are guided to thorough long-term analysis of problems and topics, and to inventive seizing of the clothing medium as a means of communication and expression. During the studies, the students are familiarised with a wide spectrum of work, from designing of products for ready-made mass production, through individual custom production of authorial collections based conceptual conception of clothing with overlaps into fine art and clothing object.


Department of Graphics

Studio of Illustration and Graphics, within the given specialisation, leads students to work on a score of artistic outcomes, ranging from simple drawings (record communication, cartoon) through book illustration, scientific illustration, illustration as part of the visual style, up to the authorial aspect in book illustration and comics. It includes both activities that—with their construction—come close to an animated film (screenplay, dramatics) and those that come closer to free art. The studio assignments range from book assignments (picture books, folding books, yearbooks, flipbooks, comic books, drawn reports from the real environment) through newspaper, illustration assignments (educational boards, children's book illustration, posters) to graphic assignments (graphic sheets), but also include decorative designs, toys, and games.

Studio of Type Design and Typography, as part of the given specialisation, focuses on complex, where possible non-academic tasks, whose purpose is to deepen the graphic designer’s relationship to the “goods” they promote by their work, ideally by becoming the originators of the goods themselves. The content of the course involves the creation of fonts - creating new typefaces, computer versions of historical fonts, language tools (diacritics, language additions). The aim is to educate professionals who will work as freelance designers or join font design teams. The studio is dedicated to continually enhancing its cooperation with companies and organisations such as ATypI, FontLab, Monotype or Glyphs. At this stage of their studies, the students have mastered more complex/professional techniques depending on their profile (digital: kerning, font export, variable fonts; analogous: various print and pre-press techniques, post-production, bookbinding).

Studio of Graphic Design and Visual Communication focuses, under the given specialisation, on actual practical professional outcomes in visual communication while maintaining the designer’s distinctiveness. The most common types of the studio class tasks include layout and typesetting of printed matter, software analysis, visual styles. The studio’s main mission is to educate art directors and creative directors capable of thinking systemically, designing tasks and putting together and leading executive teams of their collaborators.

Studio of Graphic Design and New Media is research-oriented, within the bounds of this specialisation; its activities are not strictly tied to a specific medium or technology domain. Students are encouraged to apply experimental methods in exploring the specific features and possibilities of media (analogue v. digital) and to adopt conceptual thinking in addressing their own projects. The focus of the project is frequently determined by the students themselves thanks to the open assignments, where the students may, on the one hand, elaborate upon their authorial attitudes, and, on the other open the possibility of using graphic design to other disciplines on the other.   

Studio of Animation and Film is focused on animated film, covering, however, everything even remotely related to films (image stories, 3-D objects such as marionettes, movie awards, posters, games, toys, puppet and cartoon theatres, etc.). This "playful" approach to animated films and cartoons fully corresponds with the creative and artistic character of UMPRUM, compensating, at the same time, the need to work with utmost care, precision and patience. This concept also makes the studio different from the Department of Animated Films of the Film and TV School of Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (FAMU), where students are more systematically prepared for a career in the animated film industry. Nevertheless, our students are definitely not to be seen as animation artists only, waiting helplessly for the help of more experienced FAMU graduates.

Studio of Photography II is a space for a new generation of talent with a desire for innovation within the visual world. It is a space for interdisciplinary and intergenerational discussion. A platform for examining the process of communication through imagery within the art, design and fashion world. Compared to other accredited courses at universities that educate professional photographers, UMPRUM is unique in meeting various artistic disciplines. We consider the experience of intensive interconnected activities of the studio with other studios of all departments to be fundamental to our concept of teaching, as a specific prerequisite for the development of students and their preparation for future activities. By encountering other fields, students can firstly draw on different experiences, and secondly, they can cooperate together on joint projects.

Studio of Design and Digital Technology - a digital playground - creatively applied technologies, innovations, space for research, play, and experimentation. The basic premise for the creation of a professional artistic-technological climate should be for students to try out and get to know a wide range of digital/interactive media during their studies, including; virtual/augmented reality, motion design, gamification, electrical engineering, cybernetics, etc. Technological equipment will be part of the new building, but also adjoining the studio. The professional-theoretical part outside the basic study program will be conducted in the form of workshops, guest lectures by artists, experts, and cooperation by other schools and institutions.


Department of Fine Arts

Studio of Fine Arts I is a community of people with a shared interest in how contemporary art can co-create, influence, display, experience and imagine the world. Its focus has long been on sculpture, which it considers a way to express beliefs, opinions, suggestions, concepts, empathy and emotions that may have the power to change to a better state of things for humans but also for other species. Although it does not simply understand sculpture as a mere medium, it supports the teaching of sculptural techniques and technologies, which are being rethinked in relation to ethical production methods, the carbon footprint, recycling and upcycling of materials. This kind of knowledge then helps  intervene in public space, not only through exhibitions and discussions, but also through other formats such as campaigns, demonstrations, concerts, care, tree planting, countryside or public space events, new ways of narration, etc. The teaching approach is non-hierarchical with respect to individual needs and interests of students. Each member of the studio has the opportunity to express themselves freely, but a joint statement and narration is also sought. In recent years, the focus of the studio has moved towards a more engaged direction, responding to the problems such as the climate crisis, migration, drought, soil condition, food sovereignty, ecological grief, animal suffering. At the same time, however, it emphasizes individual starting points, approaches and experiences of today's reality, other and virtual worlds. It also follows various parallel practices and activities that show the possibilities of extending artistic expression to other areas, and looks for functional intersections between them.

Studio of Fine Arts II - its students are engaged in searching for their own topics and forms, which are then examined in joint discussions. Students are led to a systematic clarification of their meaning in the framework of contemporary intermedia and post-conceptual art, in relation to the history of art and the state of the contemporary world. Categories such as originality or dexterity, depth or beauty are not used as qualitative degrees of the ruling canon, but as some of many possible concepts, the relationship and extent of which determine the judgement. Artists choose strategies and media of expression with caution and taking into account the specific opportunity and the meaning communicated. Many ways are possible, we are in the middle of a late postmodern situation. the many times proclaimed "death of painting, photography, concept, sculpture, video can be understood as part of strategy games on the definition of contemporary art. The teaching aims to encourage students´ability to find such solutions to carry out an artwork that give space for many possible interpretations to the basic intention of the author. The work should evaluate the current state of the artistic debate and, ideally, fundamentally change it. The study of art is understood as a workshop in which models are created, with the help of which it is possible to think about our existence in space and time.

Studio of Fine Arts III is an interdisciplinary laboratory and gives students the freedom to search for their creative selves using a wider range of artistic means. Painting, drawing and their extended forms have their place here, as well as photographs, moving images, performances, work with sound and text. All this at the intersection of the mental and emotional level, physical and mental space or the overlapping of the mentioned means and possible use of other disciplines. The development of artistic thinking takes place here through mutual dialogue among students and teachers, or invited guests. Individual and mutual creative imagination is developed and it accelerates implementing of theoretical experience to the practical one. The key method of this workplace is the way of self-knowledge and rediscovery of the role of the artist in the changing world of art and even more variable society.

Studio of Fine Arts IV uses contemporary forms of artistic expression with a focus on experience in taking photographs and makings videos. It focuses on the reflection of work with photographic, moving, digital and media images, their spreading and context in relation to contemporary society. It considers photography and video to be important media, especially for the ways how contemporary artists use them and think about them. However, the resulting form of artistic expression is not limited to the media of photography and video. Teaching in the studio is based primarily on discussions and presentations, which are related to both the students' work and semesteral topics and projects. The semestral themes should primarily serve as inspiration and stimulus for independent work of students, who process topics of their choice. Invited guests also contribute to the teaching, visits to exhibitions or field trips are organized.

ELECTIVE COURSES (taught in English):

ADDITIONAL PERSONAL PROJECT IN THE STUDIO (only for students who can´t participate in the klauzura project due to earlier departure)
Code: F0002
Individual student´s project under guidance of the professor and assistents. The theme is chosen in mutual agreement between the student and teachers. Usually instead of klausura, exceptionally also as a part of the semestral programme.
5 ECTS/semester = 125 hours

Code: F0009
The students of this course become familiar with the basics of bookbinding - eight popular types of brochures and hang-up bookbinding with solid covers (V1-V8 types) - and Japanese Yotsume Toji bookbinding. The follow-up course in the second semester is focused on restoration of book and paper. Students learn several traditional bookbinding techniques, along with the materials and tools used to create a variety of book structures. They investigate different styles and use various papers and book construction methods including accordion, Japanese stab, pamphlet stitch, long stitch and Coptic. Ways to incorporate imagery into the books will be discussed.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours

Code: F0007
The course is intended for anybody who wants to improve their perception of reality, experience the AAAD way of teaching, try various drawing techniques and to compare their work with others. Advice on own work and obligatory homework is individual. Ten different live models, sulphite paper, life-size drawing board and mainly professional guidance are available. The course focuses on figurative drawing but in the case of interest it is possible to chose different themes for drawing.
2 ECTS/semester = 36 hours

Code: F0013
The content of the course is modelling portrait from a live model at a 1:1 scale. In the introductory lesson, the basic technical method of piling up clay on a wooden construction and measuring key points in the correct proportion are explained. Furthermore, the students work individually according to their individual abilities and their work is consulted with the lecturers. As each student continuously creates only one work in the course of the semester, the lessons follow each other according to the progress of the student. Finally, the work is photographically documented and clay recycled for further use.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours


Code: F0003
Litography, linocut, etching
2 ECTS/semester

Code: F0010
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours


COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN SEMINAR (only in autumn semester)
Code: F0001
Computational Design Seminar investigates fundamental changes brought to the field of architecture and design by the introduction of the digital tools. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing became a new mainstream and are followed by new generative and computational approaches, interactive systems and artificial intelligence. The changes brought by the new digital paradigm are not of only a technical nature, related to the understanding and knowledge of the new tools and techniques, but also of the acceptance of a different mode of thinking about the nature of the design.
The course will provide a theoretical foundation to the field of computational design. Through the analysis of various projects, participants will discuss new chances and challenges brought by the paradigm.

On satisfactory completion of this course, the student will be able to distinguish and characterize various directions and approaches in the field of computational design, put the work of contemporary architects and designers in the context of the development of architectural tools and understand concepts and framework of computational design thinking.

2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours


Code: F0042
The development of computational technologies and the digitization of architectural tools have radically influenced the architectural practice. The aim of the course is to introduce the new field of generative and computational design giving an overview on existing digital platforms and making students familiar with Grasshopper and Python visual and classic programming languages.
In the first semester students will be introduced to the basics of Grasshopper and Python languages in Rhinoceros 5.0 programme and will learn several computational designing procedures.
In the second semester, students will get familiar with specific applications of computational methods for architectural and design tasks, simulations of static and dynamic phenomena and the basics of digital fabrication.

On satisfactory completion of this course, the student will be able to distinguish and characterize various tools and methods in the field of computational design, design through the use of algorithms and scripting, understand and apply digital tools to the both design and fabrication processes.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours

Code: F0004
Our one-year course taught in English comprises of lectures in a field of modern art and architecture. It provides students with an education in the history of the Central European, Czechoslovak and Czech art and architecture of the 20th and 21st centuries from the perspective of Central European social, cultural and economic history. It also equips them with the necessary academic skills for a career within or outside of the academia, giving the students the innovative view on historical and cultural development in this region. Participants have the opportunity to visit leading cultural and knowledge institutions in the city and explore their permanent or temporary exhibitions or educational programs linked with the topics of each lecture. Inherent part of each lecture is discussion with and among the students, lecturers and experts from the visited cultural institutions. Through lecture we strongly believe it is critical for our students to be exposed to the best and most progressive work.

All lectures present projects and discuss ideas and history of this field, or related areas (such as urbanism, cultural heritage preservation, conservation, museology, etc.). These areas equally cover the history and development of visual arts and architecture, both intentionally linked up with the European or generally known artistic periods and historical turning-points. Focus is on providing as much arguments and information as it is possible in order to provoke students’ questions in finding their own reflection on history of visual art, as well as answers to the questions about its character, function or mission.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours

Code: F0015
The two-semester course will trace the main chapters of Czech modern art in a broader international context. It will follow the major movements and leading personalities in a chronological way. Theoretical classroom lectures will be accompanied by visits to permanent collections of National Gallery in Prague and temporary exhibitions.
On satisfactory completion of this course, the student will be able to understand the key principles of the most important modern art movements and to argue their importance, distinguish the specificity of Czech modern art and its role in international context and view art as a complex field which role is relevant also in context of society, politics and national issues.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours


Code: F0012
The GD seminar offers selected “70 issues” from Graphic Design history in a context and comparison with the situation in the former Czechoslovakia, and later on in the Czech Republic. The main theme “Modernism and its heritage” is further divided into three main blocks of seminars: “What Avant-gard had initiated” (1900–1939), “Bauhaus Emigrés in the USA and What happened in Europe” (1939-50s) and “The Critique of Modernism”. The students will be asked to select one of the presented problems, research its evidence and write their own analysis.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours

Code: F0040
The course will introduce you to the history of design ranging from the beginning of the 19th century (Ruskin, Thonet, Dresser etc., Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry, London 1851), Modernism (Werkbund, Artěl), Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism (including a lecture in collections of UPM/Museum of Decorative Arts); Art Deco (Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, Paris 1900), National style and Functionalism, World War II and its impact on the development of design, Cold War, to organic design and a development of plastics, die Gute Form, postmodernism and contemporary design. A part of every lecture will focus on the history of Czech design in the context of history, culture and visual arts.

On satisfactory completion of this course, the student will be able to prove their understanding of the key principles of the most important historical design movements, to argue their importance and be aware of the specificity of Czech/Czechoslovak design in the world context; critically evaluate different ideas and problems approached by important design movements and personalities and to see them in specific historical and social context; put their own work as designers into a wider social context; view design as a complex field, that reacts to specific needs of society and individuals and closely cooperates with other areas of art and industry.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours


Code: F0049
The lecture series provides a basic overview of the key theoretical concepts, the basic development trends and creative approaches in the field of architecture in the 20th century and contemporary architecture. A special attention is paid to the architectural avant-garde, and Prague and Brno as architectural centers in the first half of XX century. Modernism will be explained by its original thoughts ideas and believes and this manner will be used also for the contemporary, more recent architectures.  Political and economic context of the architecture will be underlying 100 years of architecture.

On satisfactory completion of this course, the student will be able to define the basic concepts related to architecture and urbanism within a wider socio-cultural and political context. Also, they will be able to identify the basic style trends and key projects of architecture of the period in question and to put in relations the key theoretical concepts in the field of architecture.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours


Code: F0023 (Contemporary Philosophy)
Code: F0016 (Ancient Philosophy)
Rather than dealing with specific theories and works by main philosophers, the course addresses broader topics of ancient thinking, for example myth, agency, public sphere, metaphorical thinking, tragedy and the concept of empathy. The series of lectures aims at exposing these concepts as challenging our own cultural pre-concepts, and attempts at illustrating them by audiovisual examples from popular culture (Blade Runner, True Detective, Matrix, MacGyver, etc).
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours


Code: F0041
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours

Code: F0014
Alternatives, experimental music, forms of independence and subversion, between performance and sound art; the series of lectures deals with progressive music in over the past fifty years and mainly focuses on topics such as minimalism, various forms of improvisation, noise, silence, and sound of real world, afrofuturism, sampling and conceptual music, copyright versus creativity, and digital as a metaphor. The aim of the series is not only to make students familiar with distinctive styles and prominent musicians, but also to offer them new ways of listening to and perceiving the world in general. Listening to music and watching short videos is an essential part of the lectures.
2 ECTS/semester = 24 hours